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Music 1253 Worksheet no. 12
Dictionaries, Encyclopaedia, and other Reference Books, Part 3

The purpose of Worksheets no. 11-15 is to help the student become familiar with the types of reference sources available, the types of material covered in them, the extent and depth of coverage in each, and their relative merits.
Students are advised to make special note of sources which are of particular value, and to note those which are of less value. Special features of each reference source also should be noted.
It should soon become apparent that no single, or even a few sources, can be expected to provide complete information on any topic.

* Reference sources in a language other than English can be very helpful, even if the reader cannot read the language. Often there is information-such as illustrations, musical examples, lists of works, and bibliographies, for which the actual language is not needed. Frequently much can be figured out after reading several English definitions and explanations and simply applying the information.
 
 



* Note: In each of the following, when definitions are required, put the definition into your own words (paraphrase). Avoid simply quoting. Be as brief as possible.
 
  If it is necessary to quote even a small fragment, be sure to use quotation marks always, and cite the exact source.
 
  1. In the box below, provide a brief yet thorough description or explanation of the musical instrument assigned to you according to the following directions.
    [If you are using a printed version of this Worksheet, do this on the reverse of the sheet of paper.]
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Selection:

To keep the search interesting, each student in the class will describe or explain a different instrument.

To ensure this, each student will select the name from the list below that begins with the same one, two, or three letters as the first one, two, or three letters of the student's last name.

Select as many letters as possible. If this is not successful, select another useful letter of the alphabet, closest to the correct letter. [For example, I would search for terms that begin Ca.... If this did not work, I would then search for a term beginning Ce... (etc.). If nothing is available for the firts letter of the last name, go on to the next letter of the alphabet. (If Z... is passed, continue with A....)]

Be as complete, precise, and concise as possible. (Be sure to provide adequate information in proportion to the point value of this item of the Worksheet. A thorough description should include a brief description of the instrument or term, a comment on when and where the instrument or term was used, and at least two examples of music [naming composer and title, with opus number or other identification] that use the instrument or term.)

To prepare the answer to this question, look at more than three independent sources. In this and other questions, it often will be necessary to find the word under an alternate, more all-inclusive heading. This will be required when a "see also" or "see under" (etc.) is found, or if the definition given is too brief for a full explanation. Also important: watch for variant spellings!

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Your answer should be a combination of the answers in these sources.

Possible Instruments and Instrumental Terms:
Alphorn
Angelica / Angélique
Arcicembalo
Aulos
Bandora
Baryton
Bell wheel
Blow Gong
Buisine
Carillon
Chalung
Chitarrone (or Theorbo)
Claviorgan
Cornamuse [Renaissance]
Crwth
Curtal / Dulcian
Darabuka
Diapason [organ pipe]
Double flageolet
Dulcian
Ears [organ pipe device]
Enanga
Fiddle [Medieval (Vielle; Fidel)]
Fontanelle
Geigenwerk
Gittern
Grand hautbois
Hardanger fiddle
Hichiriki
Hurdy-gurdy
Irish harp
Jaltarang
Jingling Johnnie
Kalangu
Kit
Kortholt [Sordun]
Lira da gamba [Lirone, Arciviolata lira]
Lyra viol
Mandore
Mock trumpet
Musette
Nakers
Oboe d'amore
Orpharion
Pipe and tabor
Polyfant
Psaltery
Quinton
Racket
Rebec
Rose [in context of plucked string instruments]
Sackbut / saqueboute
Sansa
Saùng
Serpent
Shawm
Slide trumpet
Sordun
Split keys
Theorbo
Uilleann pipes
Valiha
Vihuela
Wind cap
Xiao
Yueqin
Zither


Put your description in the box below. [The box will scroll to make room for extra text.]



  1. Using short titles, in the box below cite at least three independent sources for information concerning the term assigned to you (including, of course, those you used to answer the question). [If you cannot find three independent sources, please consult with the instructor of the course.]
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* If suitable material is not available in three or more dictionaries, encyclopaedias, and other reference sources, you may find it necessary to look in monographs (text books) or even in journals about the subject assigned to you. This is where bibliographies with articles in reference sources are very helpful.
 
 
* Note: In all cases, indicate the exact location of your source of information. On this worksheet, provide this citation as a short title. Short title references are normally used in Footnotes (not in Bibliographies).
 
 
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[Note: In many dictionaries and encyclopaedias, single articles may be written by several different authors. This must be noted when the material is used. Each author must be given individual credit for their contribution.]




  1. For the instrument assigned to you, using short titles, in the box below, give the locations of at least two Photographs [not a drawing or print] of actual instruments (real objects), or two different Reproductions of original period Iconographic Sources. Indicate whether each is a photograph of a real object or a reproduction of an Iconographic Source.
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If the location is reliable and done with scholarly methods and intent, you can use photographs and reproductions available on the World Wide Web. If so, it is probably prudent to download and save the images.

Iconographic Sources probably will be facsimiles of drawings, prints, paintings, or other original illustrations. One or more can be modern photographs of original sculptures, reliefs, or other three-dimensional objects. Try to use sources that appear to at least try to be accurate and realistic.

Remember that the sources may include books available at other locations in addition to those in Reference. If suitable material is not available in appropriate reference sources, you may find it necessary to look in monographs (text books) about the History of Musical Instruments, Museum and Exhibition Catalogues, and other such books. Several of these are in the section of the Library with Call Numbers beginning ML460... . A few have call numbers beginning ML462..., ML465..., and ML467.... Because these contain many photographs and other reproductions, some are in the oversize section of the Library.

If these sources fail, try other books concerning cultural and art history. These may be books n the Art section of the Library (with call numbers beginning N...), or elsewhere, such as in sections dealing with Sociology, History, Geography, Anthropology, etc.

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[Total:    / 100]


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Last updated: 24 August 2005.
Copyright © 2005 by Gordon J. Callon. All rights reserved. e-mail: gcallon @ ca.inter.net or gordon.callon @ acadiau.ca
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